3/4 Ton Dodge Airportable Trucks

A Dodge 3/4 Ton APT with narrow rear body but no wadeproof features. Note the 1945 Ontario “M”suffix licence plate These were issued to dealer and manufacturers indicating that this truck had not yet been delivered and was still in the hands of the Chrysler Corporation of Canada. (DND Image)

Unlike Ford and General Motors, the Chrysler Corporation did not have a Canadian owned division prior to the Second World War. This left the firm out of pre-war discussions with the Canadian government that would lead to the creation of Canadian Military Pattern (CMP) trucks. This did not mean Chrysler in Canada was in any way shut out of wartime contracts, and instead played a large role in the war effort with the manufacture of Modified Commercial Pattern (MCP) trucks for Canadian and commonwealth countries. Additionally, it aided in the design work for an array of military truck bodies produced in Canada during the war.

In addition to building the the Dodge MCP trucks in Windsor, Ontario, Chrysler also looked to the U.S. military models of Dodge trucks for applicable designs and ideas that might be useful to Canadian and commonwealth forces. The first design selected for production in Canada, was the ½ Ton 4×4 Dodge “WC” series with a closed cab and personnel body. This design was modified to create the T212, known in military service as the “D8A” or “8 cwt 4×4 Scout”. In total, 3001 of these trucks were produced between 1940-41 in Windsor, with all of them shipped overseas to serve with British and commonwealth forces, mostly in the middle east.

By 1942, demand for the new CMP designs led to Chrysler experimenting with a 15 cwt 4×2 General Service truck that utilized the CMP No.13 cab. This truck was based on the Dodge T222 platform but to ease manufacture, it incorporated a number of Ford and Chevrolet components. Little is known of this experiment, but the 1943 report relating to the acceptance test of the vehicle still survives.

Air Portable

In July 1944, the British Ministry of Supply issued an urgent requirement for 15 cwt 4×4 General Service trucks. At this time Ford and General Motors were in full production of the CMP trucks then in service with Canada and the commonwealth on all fronts and were not able to increase production to accept the order. Chrysler Canada had stopped mass production of 4×4 trucks after the T-212 of 1941. An investigation into the possibility of modifying the U.S. military WC52 ¾ ton trucks to suit Canadian manufacturing differences was completed quickly, resulting in an April 15, 1945 British order of 10,000 T-236 ¾ Ton General Service Trucks under contract S/M 6243. These trucks were designated “D ¾ APT” and were classified as “Airportable” as they could be loaded into transport aircraft with minimal disassembly, a significant design benefit over the CMP vehicles then in use, especially considering the planned invasion of Japan.

Dodge T-236 Chassis Serial Numbers

ModelStart Serial NumberEnd Serial NumberTotal
D ¾ APT91151283911562825000
D ¾ APT/WP91166034911727836750
Note that there were 11750 chassis serial numbers assigned by Chrysler to the T-236. This does not necessarily reflect the total number of vehicles produced. If all vehicles ordered under S/M 6243 were actually produced the end chassis serial number would be 91171033.

Initially, the main difference between the Canadian and American manufactured trucks was the use of the larger Canadian manufactured 236 cubic inch flathead 6-cylinder engine, necessitating slightly longer front sheet-metal, and a standardised 12 volt electrical system. Shortly after production began, they found that if the rear body was narrowed by 6 inches it would allow the body to be re-fitted to the truck after loading into a C-47/Dakota aircraft. This saved considerable space in the aircraft over the previous method where the bodies were stored on their sides separate from the chassis. The initial body model fitted to the Canadian manufactured trucks was the “2M1A” which measured 83 ¼” in width while the redesigned body, designated “2M2A”, was 77 ¼” in width. The “A” in both model numbers indicates ‘airportable’. In all, 3200 trucks were assembled with the original width “2M1A” rear body before the change to the narrow body occurred.

Right side illustration of the Canadian Built 2M1A rear Body for the Dodge APT. Taken from the Army Engineering Design Branch (AEDB) Design Record. (DND Illustration)

The last major change to the Dodge APT was the introduction of ‘wade proofing’. This change saw components of the engine and electrical system changed to ‘wadeproofed’ versions that allowed for the safe immersion in water without significant preparation. This change came as a result of the lessons learned after the D-Day invasion of 1944, where vehicles had to go through a lengthy packing and sealing process in order to prepare for water immersion, and then after wading, had to have the protections removed for regular use. The most obvious change to APT vehicles that are wade-proofed, is the hood with air intake snorkel cutout on the right side and the revised data-plate that shows the new nomenclature ‘D ¾ WP/APT’. This change was introduced at vehicle number 5001 (serial 91166034) in late spring of 1945, but interestingly the wade-proofed distributor and ignition coil were not introduced until vehicle 6001 (serial 91167034).

Illustration from the WP/APT manual showing the routing of the deep water snorkel system fitted to the carburetor and attached to the windshield frame. This tube would pass through the cut-out on the right side panel of the hood on the Wadeproofed model of the APT. (DND Illustration)

Production of the APT continued at Windsor, Ontario until at least October 1945, but it is not believed much later due to the surrender of Japan and the massive surplus of new production vehicles then held in military stores. Total production of the APT in Canada is not yet known, but it is reasonable to believe from available date and recorded serial numbers, that 8000 to as many as the full 10 000 vehicles ordered under S/M 6243 were completed.

British Military Use

Considering the Dodge APT was manufactured to a British military requirement, there is somewhat surprisingly little information or evidence extant of its use by that country’s military.

The only known War Department (W.D.) census number block for the D 3/4 APT in British service is Z6229349 – Z6230348 which records a group of 1000 trucks.

Images of Dodge APT’s in British service are scarce but one common trend is that they appear in the far east, at or after the end of the Second World Wars. As images of WC-52’s in commonwealth service are slightly more common in these regions, one of the challenges in identifying the Canadian built APT is that early production vehicles are virtually identical to their American WC-52 counterparts. Compounding this is the use of a unique format of census numbers used on British vehicles supplied to the South East Asia Command (SEAC). This numbering system does not appear to be documented like those numbers assigned by the War Department (W.D.) and often prevents a positive identification of the vehicle.

Finding evidence to the APT in the far-east, is in line with the envisioned use of the vehicles in the invasion of Japan and the liberation of the Japanese-occupied areas in the region. Beyond the Airportable and Wadeproofed features that would be useful there, the Drivers Handbook and Maintenance Manual for the APT both contain supplements on “Tropical Maintenance” including a section on what to do in case of Termite infestation!

The first APT’s would have arrived in the Far East in mid-1945, likely June or July, just weeks or possibly months before the end of the conflict. Any examples that saw wartime service would have been in use in India, Java and Malaya. 

After the surrender of Japan, the fighting in parts of the far east did not completely cease. British and Indian units were dispatched from India and Malaya to Java in an attempt to quell an uprising by Indonesian Nationalists. Later, in 1948, the Malay Emergency erupted, sending a significant British force to the area. In Malaya, the APT appears to have been used for patrols as a troop and cargo carrier and some examples were provided with additional anti-ambush armour protection for the driver and co-driver.

It is reasonable to believe that the vast majority of British Dodge APT’s were disposed of in the far east when the former British colonies such as India were granted independence or as replacement vehicles such as Land Rovers and Bedfords became available in the mid 1950’s.

Canadian Military Use

Although there is no evidence that Canada formally procured any Dodge APT’s, it is apparent that many of the later vehicles remained in Canada and were never delivered to the British. These vehicles appear to have been transferred to the Canadian government as new and were never shipped overseas before the end of the Second World War. The Canadian Army’s post-war use of the Dodge APT, saw examples serve with both regular and reserve army units. The Royal Canadian Air Force also used a number of APT’s, usually painted in distinctive flight-line yellow overall. APT’s were in Canadian service from shortly after the Second World War until they were replaced by the Dodge M37 CDN SMP designs of the early 1950’s. While in Canadian service, they were mainly used as General Service trucks for transporting goods and troops, but some were also converted to specialist roles such as signals line layers. Others were retained by trades schools for use in driver and maintainer training while The RCAF used some as ramp vehicles and for Loadmaster training.

When the Canadian Army Special Force (CASF) was created to provide an infantry brigade to fight in Korea, the Dodge APT saw its only Canadian active service, albeit in a training role. In 1950, it was decided that the newly formed 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group  (25 CIBG) would perform its initial training in the United States at Fort Lewis, Washington. While the intent was to equip the brigade with vehicles sourced from the United States, shortages meant that initially the Canadian forces in Washington relied on a number of Canadian sourced vehicles, including ¾ Ton APT’s. It is not presently known how many APT’s  were shipped to the US in late 1950 for training 25 CIBG but it was recorded that 26 were returned to 17 ROD in Vancouver, British Columbia on 11 May 1951, after being replaced by US sourced examples that were eventually shipped overseas with the brigade.

By 1953, Canada made the decision to dispose of its reserve stock fleet of APT’s and offered 1138 vehicles described as “reconditioned and in Class 1 condition” as part of the 1953-54 Canadian Mutual Aid program made available to NATO partner countries. The remaining vehicles then in service throughout Canada, were phased out of service as M37 CDN SMP’s became available, with many being sold as surplus to civilian buyers. The Canadian Army finally disposed of the entire remaining Canadian APT spare parts inventory in 1956, ending the Canadian military use of the Dodge 3/4 ton APT.

NATO Users

When Canada replaced the Dodge APT with the M37 CDN trucks in the early 1950’s a decision was made to offer the now surplus inventory of serviceable APT’s to European NATO Partner countries that were in need of wheeled transport vehicles to rebuild their militaries after years of war and often German occupation.

In the 1953-54 Canadian Mutual Aid program, offering of excess military equipment 1138 “¾ Ton General Service Trucks, Dodge Type”, were identified as being available to interested nations for delivery by July 1, 1953. Initially, the NATO Assistant Secretary General for Production and Logistics recommended that these trucks be evenly distributed between Greece and Turkey, as they both had large deficiencies in this type of equipment and were non-producing countries who had similar vehicles (presumably US sourced WC52’s) already in service. Canada did not pursue this suggestion and offered the vehicles to Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey and the United Kingdom. By August 1953 letters of request had been received and accepted from all countries except Belgium and the United Kingdom. In total all 1138 reserve stock APT’s were requested by seven NATO countries.

Mutual Aid Distribution of Post-War Canadian Dodge APT Holdings.

Qty. Rec’d10010035033481004071138
All vehicles transferred were reconditioned and in Class “1” condition.

In December 1955, the Canadian government again brought up the matter of Dodge APT’s to NATO in their Canadian Mutual Aid Program 1955-56 offerings for vehicle spare parts for “Trucks ¾ Ton GS”. Under this offer, it was suggested by Canada to distribute the remaining inventory of APT spares to each country that accepted trucks in 1953, with all spares being divided based on how many trucks were initially transferred to each country. All parts were identified as immediately available for shipment and would be shipped after 1st February 1956, if letters of request were received prior to that date.

It would appear that the APT’s, although initially appealing for their similarity to the far more common US built WC-52’s, did present some supply challenges to these nations due to their unique features. Many countries were quick to replace them once their military’s were rebuilt, and few lasted in service much past the 1960’s, with most seeing little use. It appears that the last NATO user of the APT was Norway, who finally sold off their remaining inventory in 1984.


Today the Dodge APT can be found in North America, Northern Europe and the Mediterranean but more may survive in parts of Asia where they have gone unnoticed. According to the production numbers almost the entire first production batch of 5000 vehicles that was supplied to the British remains unaccounted for. It is reasonable to consider that the vast majority of these trucks were shipped directly to the far-east in 1945, where many were likely stored until distributed to friendly counties in that region or eventually scrapped. Hopefully, as awareness of this Canadian military vehicle increases, positive identification of more APT’s around the world will be possible.

Table of Known Dodge 3/4 Ton APT Data

Serial No.Manufacture DateDND/WD No.Body No.Engine No.ModelNotes
91151283APTFirst Production Serial number for APT
911515962M1AT236-1389-CAPTNATO Mutual Aid Norway
911544832M2AFirst Production Serial Number fitted with 2M2A Narrow Rear Body
91166034WP/APTFirst Production Serial Number for WP/APT
91166362Retained in Canada
9116675531/2M2A/2530Retained in Canada
9116695526/07/1945WP/APT-GS-1Retained in Canada
RCCS markings from service
9116700227/07/1945Retained in Canada
91167034WP/APTFirst Production Serial Number fitted with Wadeproof distributor and Coil
9116737004/08/1945T236-8842-CWP/APTNATO Mutual Aid Norway
91167643Retained In Canada
9116780720/08/19452M2AT236-9222-CWP/APTRetained in Canada
9116783420/08/194531/2M2A/3621T236-9371-CWP/APTNATO Mutual Aid Norway
Sold as Surplus 1984
91167958T236-8725-CNATO Mutual Aid Netherlands
91168137T236-9550-CNATO Mutual Aid Norway
9116850005/09/1945T236-10088-CWP/APTRetained In Canada
9116882211/09/194586-79410238-CWP/APT-GS-1NATO Mutual Aid Italy
91168940WP/APTNATO Mutual Aid Norway
Information in this table is generally from unofficial sources and remains subject to verification.

Images of D 3/4 APT in Canadian Use

A narrow bodied D 3/4 APT with Chrysler Corp. of Canada “Manufacturers” licence plate prior to delivery.
(DND Image)
A WP/APT seen during the Summer of 1949 in front of the Grande-Allée Armoury in Quebec City. (Unknown Source)
A pair of APT’s seen in British Columbia during 1952 at the Vernon Cadet Camp. Note the DND registration number of the rear corner of the body and the sling plates on the wheels. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
WP/APT “DND 92-207” circa 1949 being used for training ground crew on a RCAF Dakota aircraft. Note the permanently relocated batteries secured to the running board of the APT. (DND Image)
WP/APT “DND 86-773” seen in Montreal, Quebec with a fresh coat of semi-gloss olive drab paint. Note the sling plates on the wheels the tire pressures stenciled by the co-drivers seat and the repaired canvas top. (City of Montreal Archives)
Another view of WP/APT “DND 86-773” seen in Montreal, Quebec. This image shows a well used vehicle with bent front bumper wearing the Canadian Army post-war semi-gloss olive drab paint. (City of Montreal Archives)
A very tidy APT “DND 91-289” seen on the flight line at Resolute Bay Northwest Territories in June of 1950 with RCAF crew. The Canvas tarp appears to have been permanently attached to the body sides and the spare wheel and tire have been removed. (Library and Archives Canada)
The envious job of hacking boxes of frozen rations out of a snow drift with an axe at RCAF Resolute Northwest Territories during the polar night in May of 1950. The APT appears to be in semi gloss olive drab and has a tear in the canvas top. (Library and Archives Canada)
A WP/APT seen in 1952 Vernon Cadet Camp being used for driver training in company with a CMP truck. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
A WP/APT with the Driving Instructors of the Vernon Cadet Camp in 1952. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
A 1949 dated image of RCAF WP/APT “DND 87-613” seen with locally made winter enclosure at the RCAF Research Establishment in Ottawa, Ontario. This modification appears to have done away with the running boards and spare wheel and would be much more hospitable in winter. This truck has likely been repainted Yellow. The original caption of this RCAF official image refers to the vehicle as a “Weapons Carrier” (Library and Archives Canada)
An APT at the Glenemma Range with Cadets from the Vernon Army Cadet Camp. Note the distinctive paint job complete with bridge classification on the bumper of the APT on the right of the image. The flag on the fender of this vehicle indicates it is likely a cable layer. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
A line of APT’s Headed to the Glenemma Range near Vernon, British Columbia. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
An APT loaded with a cable laying cart at the Glenemma Ranges. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
An early version of the loading ramp for the D 3/4 APT from a Canadian Department of National Defence report. The Dakota IV is RCAF 986 which was in service from February 1945 until being lost in a crash in March 1946. (DND Image)
An image from the same DND report showing an APT being loaded into the same aircraft. Note that in addition to the rear body being removed loading also required the removal of the drivers seat and Right rear bumperette. (DND Image)
The last image from the same report showing the final loading of the APT into the Dakota/ C47 aircraft. This APT is fitted with the narrower 2M2A rear body that allows the re-installation of the body back onto the chassis. This allowed more cargo to be carried in the aircraft over the original width 2M1A bodied trucks, which required the bodies to be stored on their sides behind the chassis, taking up valuable space. (DND Image)
A study of APT “DND 87-583” fitted with cable laying equipment in use with a Central Command unit of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals. (DND Image)
A detailed image of the above APT “DND 87-583” showing line laying equipment. (DND Image)
Another image of the above truck “DND 87-583” showing the strengthened floor for the cable laying equipment and Central Command markings. The licence plate is and Ontario plate for with “F” suffix reserved for Canadian Army vehicles. (DND Image)
Interestingly the cable laying modification took up the space gained by the short left body side used on APT’s once again requiring the driver to enter the vehicle from the co-drivers side. (DND Image)
One last view of “DND 87-583” showing the flag used to identify Cable Laying vehicles. (DND Image)
Cadets of the Vernon Army Cadet Camp seen in 1949 laying signals cable from the back of APT “DND 86-490” marked to the British Columbia Dragoons of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
Another view of APT “DND 86-490” with Cadets from the Vernon Army cadet Camp. (Vernon Cadet Museum)
An APT of the RCCS showing the unique running boards used on vehicles fitted with the narrow 2M2A body. These caused the fuel can holders to hang over the sides when compared to a WC-52. The cable reel resting on the body side could lead one to believe this is a cable layer but it is not fitted with any of the specialist cable laying equipment and appears to be a General Service (GS) truck. (DND Image)
A line crew from the No.1 Independent Signal Squadron with a line laying APT in August 1954. This late date would indicate that the APT cable layers served later than the GS trucks, likely until such time and the cable laying conversion for the M37 CDN was accepted. (DND Image)
A freshly surplussed WP/APT with complete canvas seen in the mid-1950’s. Note the Ontario civilian licence plate. (Courtesy Jeff Stevenson)
An additional image of the above truck showing the 1950’s commercial plate and “Red Wing Flying Service, Port Carling Ontario” sign affixed to the body side. (Courtesy Jeff Stevenson)
Amazingly, the above truck remains in the same family and is now restored back to its appearance as a freshly surplussed Canadian Army APT working with the Red Wing Flying Service. (Courtesy Jeff Stevenson)
A road move of the Royal Canadian Regiment during the late 1940’s or early 1950’s showing a large number of APT’s in the convoy. (courtesy Bill Liddell)
This Canadian APT was still earning its jeep as a snowplow in Quebec as recently as 2018. Now heavily modified with a early 1950’s dodge truck cab, it illustrates the usefulness and lasting strength of the APT trucks even 70 years on. (J. Ginn Image)

Images of D 3/4 APT in British Army Use

An APT produced before the wadeproofed version was introduced in use with the 99th Field Regiment Royal Artillery, of the 2nd Division, 14th Army in Dehradun, India in 1945-46. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
Another image of the above truck this time showing the SEAC census number “617166” used by British Forces in the far east. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
An original Wheeled Vehicle Inspection Report for the above APT “617166” issued to the Royal Artillery in India, identified here as “RB166” and dated summer of 1946. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
an additional section of an original Wheeled Vehicle Inspection Report for the above APT “617166” issued to the Royal Artillery in India, identified here as “RB166” and dated summer of 1946. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
An APT of the 99th Field Regiment Royal Artillery, 2nd Division, 14th Army stuck in a river after flooding in India during 1945 (Courtesy Michael Hills)
A closeup of a Royal Artillery APT in India during 1945-46 showing the fitting of a British flimsy style fuel can to the U.S. Jerry Can bracket. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
An APT of the 99th Field Regiment Royal Artillery, 2nd Division, 14th Army seen in India during 1945-46. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
An APT with Census number “617185” seen during the The Malayan Emergency of 1948. In this case a Royal Artillery mobile Battery Command Post set up under the protection of an Daimler Mk.II armoured car during a “cordon and search” operation. (IWM Image)
An APT in Malaya (distinguishable by the extended space between the leading edge of the fender and grill when compared to the WC-52) seen with an armoured protection kit in front of the windshield and wrapping around the door openings to protect against small-arms fire. This image is from a series where a third 3/4 ton Dodge is being recovered from a ravine. Notice the winch cables running from the two Dodges and there is a third cable from the CMP wrecker out of frame. All three vehicles likely belong to REME. (Unknown Source)
British Paratroops on the roadside in Malaya with an APT. Note the Post-1949 Equipment Registration Mark (ERM) “96ZA21” (Courtesy roll-of-honour.com)

Images of Mutual Aid D 3/4 APT’s in Dutch Use

A lovely study of a Dutch WP/APT in service within Europe. Note the addition of turn signals to the fenders and European standard non-directional tires. (Netherlands Institute of Military History)
An example of a Dutch military data-plate for the Dodge APT. (Courtesy Edd Stolwerk)
An example of a Dutch military engine rebuild data-plate for the Dodge APT. This one indicating that the engine was rebuilt in 1961. (Courtesy Edd Stolwerk)

Images of Mutual Aid D 3/4 APT’s in Italian Use

A surviving WP/APT in Italy which appears to have been used as a farm vehicle. Note the modified top bows likely from Italian Army service. (Courtesy Maurizio Secondino)
A WP/APT under restoration in Italy that displays the text “NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION MUTUAL AID. TO ITALIAN ARMY FROM CANADIAN ARMY” with red maple leaf on the original paint layers after sanding of the body sides. This form of stenciling was common on Canadian vehicles supplied to NATO partners as Mutual Aid. (Courtesy Marchini Dante)
The opposite side of the above truck showing the similar original Canadian shipping stencils. (Courtesy Marchini Dante)
Tailgate from the above APT showing the original Canadian army registration number “86-794” (Courtesy Marchini Dante)

Images of Mutual Aid D 3/4 APT’s in Portuguese Use

A very tidy WP/APT in Portuguese Air Force service likely during the late 1950’s. (Força Aérea Portuguesa)
A tired looking APT with registration “MG-81-99” seen in storage at the Depósito Geral de Material de Guerra – Beirolianos near Lisbon during the 1970’s. (Courtesy Victor Amorim)
A preserved WP/APT seen in Portugal showing the Army registration number “MG-81-56” Note the replacement headlamps, likely sourced from an M37 SMP truck. (Unknown Source)

Images of Mutual Aid D 3/4 APT’s in Danish Use

A preserved Danish Army WP/APT with registration number “22.435” (Courtesy Henrik Clausen)
A Preserved Danish Army APT telephone maintenance truck with trailer seen at the Ryes Barracks in Fredericia. (Courtesy Danish Army Vehicles Homepage)

Dodge D 3/4 APT Data Plates

A clear example of a surviving WP/APT dataplate. (Courtesy Terje Johanssen)
A dataplate from a surviving 2M2A body. (Courtesy Otto Scheel)
An engine dataplate for a Wadeproofed engine. ( Courtesy Age Veldman)
A manufacturers dataplate from a APT. This plate is located on the drivers side of the dashboard. (Courtesy Terje Johannessen)
Dataplate placement on a restored WP/APT. (Courtesy Marchini Dante)

Dodge D 3/4 APT Manuals

3/4 APT-D1 Maintenance Manual for WP/APT trucks dated December 1945
WM 4143 Parts List for 3/4 APT dated April 1945.
WM 4169 Parts List Supplement for 3/4 APT dated August 1945. (Reprint)
WM 4164 Driver’s Handbook for the 3/4 APT dated June, 1945 (Reprint).
A D3/4 APT-HB1 from February 1945 showing the added section on tropical maintenance. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
Cover of the HB-TPL/1 tropical maintenance supplement that was added to the above drivers handbook. This example was issued to Royal Artillery Driver D.B.Hills in India during 1945. (Courtesy Michael Hills)
D3/4 APT/WP-HB1 Reflecting changes made for Wadeproof Vehicles.

Select Sources

Canadian Dodge 3/4 APT-WP Facebook Group.

Canadian Vehicles in Korea, Don Dingwall, 2015

Drive to Victory Vol. 1, Clive Law, 2016

Blueprint For Victory, William Greg, 1979

CMP-INFOEX, Edition 65, Feb. 1993, Peter Ford

NATO Archives Records on 1953 Canadian Mutual Aid Program.


This article would not have been possible without the existence of the Canadian Dodge 3/4 APT-WP Facebook group and its members.